A Cultural History Of Medical Vitalism In Enlightenment Montpellier

A Cultural History of Medical Vitalism in Enlightenment Montpellier PDF
Author: Elizabeth A. Williams
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351962566
Size: 57.71 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 384

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A Cultural History Of Medical Vitalism In Enlightenment Montpellier

by Elizabeth A. Williams, A Cultural History Of Medical Vitalism In Enlightenment Montpellier Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download A Cultural History Of Medical Vitalism In Enlightenment Montpellier books, One of the key themes of the Enlightenment was the search for universal laws and truths that would help illuminate the workings of the universe. It is in such attitudes that we trace the origins of modern science and medicine. However, not all eighteenth century scientists and physicians believed that such universal laws could be found, particularly in relation to the differences between living and inanimate matter. From the 1740s physicians working in the University of Medicine of Montpellier began to contest Descartes's dualist concept of the body-machine that was being championed by leading Parisian medical 'mechanists'. In place of the body-machine perspective that sought laws universally valid for all phenomena, the vitalists postulated a distinction being living and other matter, offering a holistic understanding of the physical-moral relation in place of mind-body dualism. Their medicine was not based on mathematics and the unity of the sciences, but on observation of the individual patient and the harmonious activities of the 'body-economy'. Vitalists believed that Illness was a result of disharmony in this 'body-economy' which could only be remedied on an individual level depending on the patient's own 'natural' limitations. The limitations were established by a myriad of factors such as sex, class, age, temperament, region, and race, which negated the use of a single universal treatment for a particular ailment. Ultimately Montpelier medicine was eclipsed by that of Paris, a development linked to the dynamics of the Enlightenment as a movement bent on cultural centralisation, acquiring a reputation as a kind of anti-science of the exotic and the mad. Given the long-standing Paris-centrism of French cultural history, Montpellier vitalism has never been accorded the attention it deserves by historians. This study repairs that neglect.



Innovationsuniversit T Halle

Innovationsuniversit  t Halle  PDF
Author: Daniel Fulda
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110682079
Size: 19.72 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : History
Languages : de
Pages : 334

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Innovationsuniversit T Halle

by Daniel Fulda, Innovationsuniversit T Halle Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Innovationsuniversit T Halle books, War die Universität Halle, als sie 1694 gegründet wurde und bald zur angesehensten und frequenzstärksten Hochschule im Reich aufstieg, eine „Innovationsuniversität", wie es in der Forschung gerne heißt? Wer darauf antworten will, hat zunächst zu klären, ob es sich um eine Frage nach dem Selbstverständnis der historischen Akteure handelt oder ob es der zurückschauende Forscher ist, der Innovation konstatiert. In diesem Sinne fragt der Band: Spielten Ansprüche auf Erneuerung der Institution Universität bei ihrer Gründung eine Rolle, sei es bei den Gelehrten oder den politischen Akteuren? Welchen Anteil hatten Reform- oder Erneuerungsideen an deren Selbstinszenierung? Und falls es ein solches Programm gegeben hat: Wurde es im Lehrprogramm der Universität eingelöst? Der Band unternimmt eine traditionskritische Revision des etablierten Bildes von der ‚Innovations- und Reformuniversität‘ Halle durch quellennahe Rekonstruktionen historischer Wahrnehmungshorizonte und Agenden. Seine Analysen des Zusammenwirkens von Gelehrten und Öffentlichkeit lassen zumindest eines als gesichert erscheinen: Es gab Gelehrte der Fridericiana und auch Politiker, die über ein Konzept von ‚Innovation‘ verfügten, auch wenn sie sich nicht dieses Wortes bedienten.



A Cultural History Of The Senses In The Age Of Enlightenment

A Cultural History of the Senses in the Age of Enlightenment PDF
Author: Anne C. Vila
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1474233104
Size: 76.86 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 288

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A Cultural History Of The Senses In The Age Of Enlightenment

by Anne C. Vila, A Cultural History Of The Senses In The Age Of Enlightenment Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download A Cultural History Of The Senses In The Age Of Enlightenment books, This volume examines the varied ways in which the senses were perceived afresh during the Enlightenment. In addition to introducing new philosophical and scientific models which sometimes upended the classic hierarchy of the senses, this period witnessed major changes in living and working habits, including urbanization, travel and exploration, the invention of new sonic and visual media, and the rise of comfort and pleasure as values that cut across a range of social classes. As this volume shows, those developments inspired a wealth of sensorially stimulating styles of design, art, music, poetry, foodstuffs, material goods and modes of worship and entertainment. The volume also demonstrates the period's countervailing concern with managing the senses, evident in fields like natural philosophy, medicine, education, religion, and public hygiene. Finally, it explores some of the Enlightenment's desensualizing tendencies, like the separation of sensuous body from discerning mind in certain arenas of science and manufacturing, and the late 18th-century shift away from a politics of publicity, or intense visual and aural scrutiny, toward the secret ballot. A Cultural History of the Senses in the Age of Enlightenment presents essays on the following topics: the social life of the senses; urban sensations; the senses in the marketplace; the senses in religion; the senses in philosophy and science; medicine and the senses; the senses in literature; art and the senses; and sensory media.



Soul Machine The Invention Of The Modern Mind

Soul Machine  The Invention of the Modern Mind PDF
Author: George Makari
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 0393248690
Size: 60.59 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 608

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Soul Machine The Invention Of The Modern Mind

by George Makari, Soul Machine The Invention Of The Modern Mind Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Soul Machine The Invention Of The Modern Mind books, A brilliant and comprehensive history of the creation of the modern Western mind. Soul Machine takes us back to the origins of modernity, a time when a crisis in religious authority and the scientific revolution led to searching questions about the nature of human inner life. This is the story of how a new concept—the mind—emerged as a potential solution, one that was part soul and part machine, but fully neither. In this groundbreaking work, award-winning historian George Makari shows how writers, philosophers, physicians, and anatomists worked to construct notions of the mind as not an ethereal thing, but a natural one. From the ascent of Oliver Cromwell to the fall of Napoleon, seminal thinkers like Hobbes, Locke, Diderot, and Kant worked alongside often-forgotten brain specialists, physiologists, and alienists in the hopes of mapping the inner world. Conducted in a cauldron of political turmoil, these frequently shocking, always embattled efforts would give rise to psychiatry, mind sciences such as phrenology, and radically new visions of the self. Further, they would be crucial to the establishment of secular ethics and political liberalism. Boldly original, wide-ranging, and brilliantly synthetic, Soul Machine gives us a masterful, new account of the making of the modern Western mind.



Fiber Medicine And Culture In The British Enlightenment

Fiber  Medicine  and Culture in the British Enlightenment PDF
Author: Hisao Ishizuka
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 134993268X
Size: 13.47 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 276

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Fiber Medicine And Culture In The British Enlightenment

by Hisao Ishizuka, Fiber Medicine And Culture In The British Enlightenment Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Fiber Medicine And Culture In The British Enlightenment books, This book provides a full account of the concept of fiber and fiber theory in eighteenth-century British medicine. It explores the pivotal role fiber played as a defining, underlying concept in anatomy, physiology, pathology, therapeutics, psychology, and the life sciences. With the gradual demise of ancient humoralism, the solid fibers appeared on the medical scene both as the basic building unit of the body and as a dynamic agent of life. As such, fiber stands at the heart of eighteenth-century medicine, both iatromechanism and iatro-vitalism. Touching on the cultural aspects of fiber, the Baroque, and the culture of sensibility, this book also challenges the widely held assumption that the eighteenth century was the age of the nerve and instead offers an alternative model of fiber.



Vitalism And The Scientific Image In Post Enlightenment Life Science 1800 2010

Vitalism and the Scientific Image in Post Enlightenment Life Science  1800 2010 PDF
Author: Sebastian Normandin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400724454
Size: 54.17 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 377

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Vitalism And The Scientific Image In Post Enlightenment Life Science 1800 2010

by Sebastian Normandin, Vitalism And The Scientific Image In Post Enlightenment Life Science 1800 2010 Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Vitalism And The Scientific Image In Post Enlightenment Life Science 1800 2010 books, Vitalism is understood as impacting the history of the life sciences, medicine and philosophy, representing an epistemological challenge to the dominance of mechanism over the last 200 years, and partly revived with organicism in early theoretical biology. The contributions in this volume portray the history of vitalism from the end of the Enlightenment to the modern day, suggesting some reassessment of what it means both historically and conceptually. As such it includes a wide range of material, employing both historical and philosophical methodologies, and it is divided fairly evenly between 19th and 20th century historical treatments and more contemporary analysis. This volume presents a significant contribution to the current literature in the history and philosophy of science and the history of medicine.



Sublime Dreams Of Living Machines

Sublime Dreams of Living Machines PDF
Author: Assistant Professor of History Minsoo Kang
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674049357
Size: 46.37 MB
Format: PDF
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 374

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Sublime Dreams Of Living Machines

by Assistant Professor of History Minsoo Kang, Sublime Dreams Of Living Machines Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Sublime Dreams Of Living Machines books, Historian Minsoo Kang argues that to properly understand the human-as-machine and the human-as-fundamentally-different-from-machine, we must trace the origins of these ideas and examine how they were transformed by intellectual, cultural, and artistic appearances of the automaton throughout the history of the West. Kang tracks the first appearance of the automaton in ancient myths through the medieval and Renaissance periods, marks the proliferation of the automaton as a central intellectual concept in the Scientific Revolution and the subsequent backlash during the Enlightenment, and details appearances in Romantic literature and the introduction of the living machine in the Industrial Age. He concludes with a reflection on the destructive confrontation between humanity and machinery in the modern era and the reverberations of the humanity-machinery theme today. --



Provincializing Global History

Provincializing Global History PDF
Author: James Livesey
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300237162
Size: 32.42 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Languedoc (France)
Languages : en
Pages : 224

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Provincializing Global History

by James Livesey, Provincializing Global History Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Provincializing Global History books, A microhistory of eighteenth-century systemic change that places ordinary French lives alongside global advances Provincializing Global History explores the subtle transformation of the coastal province of the Languedoc in the eighteenth century. Mining a wealth of archival sources, James Livesey unveils how provincial elites and peasant households unwittingly created new practices. Managing local political institutions, establishing new credit systems, building networks of natural historians, and introducing new plants and farm machinery to the region opened up the inhabitants of the province to new norms and standards. The practices were gradually embedded in daily life and allowed the province to negotiate the new worlds of industrial society and capitalism.



American Freethinker

American Freethinker PDF
Author: Kirsten Fischer
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812252713
Size: 25.27 MB
Format: PDF
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 304

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American Freethinker

by Kirsten Fischer, American Freethinker Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download American Freethinker books, The first comprehensive biography of Elihu Palmer tells the life story of a freethinker who was at the heart of the early United States' protracted contest over religious freedom and free speech. When the United States was new, a lapsed minister named Elihu Palmer shared with his fellow Americans the radical idea that virtue required no religious foundation. A better source for morality, he said, could be found in the natural world: the interconnected web of life that inspired compassion for all living things. Religions that deny these universal connections should be discarded, he insisted. For this, his Christian critics denounced him as a heretic whose ideas endangered the country. Although his publications and speaking tours made him one of the most infamous American freethinkers in his day, Elihu Palmer has been largely forgotten. No cache of his personal papers exists and his book has been long out of print. Yet his story merits telling, Kirsten Fischer argues, and not only for the dramatic account of a man who lost his eyesight before the age of thirty and still became a book author, newspaper editor, and itinerant public speaker. Even more intriguing is his encounter with a cosmology that envisioned the universe as interconnected, alive with sensation, and everywhere infused with a divine life force. Palmer's "heresy" tested the nation's recently proclaimed commitment to freedom of religion and of speech. In this he was not alone. Fischer reveals that Palmer engaged in person and in print with an array of freethinkers—some famous, others now obscure. The flourishing of diverse religious opinion struck some of his contemporaries as foundational to a healthy democracy while others believed that only a strong Christian faith could support democratic self-governance. This first comprehensive biography of Palmer draws on extensive archival research to tell the life story of a freethinker who was at the heart of the new nation's protracted contest over religious freedom and free speech—a debate that continues to resonate today.



Der Widerspenstigen Verst Mmelung

Der Widerspenstigen Verst  mmelung PDF
Author: Norbert Finzsch
Publisher: transcript Verlag
ISBN: 3839457173
Size: 21.72 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : History
Languages : de
Pages : 528

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Der Widerspenstigen Verst Mmelung

by Norbert Finzsch, Der Widerspenstigen Verst Mmelung Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Der Widerspenstigen Verst Mmelung books, Die Kliteridektomie war auch in westlichen Gesellschaften ein massenhaft angewandtes Mittel zur Kontrolle weiblicher Sexualität. Norbert Finzsch geht der Geschichte der weiblichen Genitalverstümmelung, kurz FGM oder FMC, nach und konzentriert sich dabei territorial auf Deutschland, Frankreich, Großbritannien und die USA. Die Untersuchung reicht von der Frühen Neuzeit bis in die Gegenwart und gibt Einblicke in die diskursiven Schichten dieser sexistischen Praxis und in die gewaltsamen Auswirkungen für die betroffenen Frauen. Nicht zuletzt deckt die sozialpsychologische Perspektive vieles über männliche Ängste vor (sexueller) Autonomie von Frauen auf.